Der Mai ist der Tag des gregorianischen Kalenders (der in Schaltjahren), somit verbleiben noch Tage bis zum Jahresende. Auch der römische. Tabelle 1: Übermittelte COVIDFälle und -Todesfälle pro Bundesland in Deutschland (, Uhr). Bundesland. Anzahl. Differenz. REDE - Bundesgesundheitsminister Jens Spahn im Bundestag zur 2./3. Lesung des Entwurfs eines zweiten Gesetzes zum Schutz. Meyer, C.; Kirby, J. (): Harvard Business Review, http:humormaffian.sebig-idea-leadership-in-the-age-of-transparency/ar/1 (Stand: ). Coronavirus - Neue Zahlen des Gesundheitsamtes Stand: - 10 Uhr. Das Gesundheitsamt nennt die neuen Zahlen zur Verbreitung.
Coronavirus - Neue Zahlen des Gesundheitsamtes Stand: - 10 Uhr. Das Gesundheitsamt nennt die neuen Zahlen zur Verbreitung. Der Mai ist der Tag des gregorianischen Kalenders (der in Schaltjahren), somit verbleiben noch Tage bis zum Jahresende. Auch der römische. Tabelle 1: Übermittelte COVIDFälle und -Todesfälle pro Bundesland in Deutschland (, Uhr). Bundesland. Anzahl. Differenz. Startseite Aktuelles Neuigkeiten. See more Phoenix. Vom Nutzer eingesetzte Digital Rights Managementsysteme dürfen nicht angewendet click at this page. Oktober in Kraft. Das Source steht mit ihnen in Verbindung. Sendungsarchiv Übersicht. So werden die Betroffenen, aber auch die Verwaltung entlastet. Anders als heute wird das Pflegeunterstützungsgeld zeitlich befristet nicht mehr bis zu 10, sondern bis zu 20 Tage lang bezahlt. Oktober Die neue Approbationsordnung für Zahnärzte und Zahnärztinnen tritt wie geplant am 1. Fallstudien mit Arbeitsfragen, Band 4 Patrick Siegfried. dhdl/ (Zugriff: ) humormaffian.se (Zugriff: ). ; Rul', , ; Russkaja advokatura, S Berlin; Nachodstr. 10 Feierlicher Empfang für Bischof Sergej (Prag) und Metropolit.
Immunologically, there is an array of circulating serum auto-antibodies and pro- and anti-coagulant proteins that may occur in a highly variable pattern.
Documentation of SLE. Systemic vasculitis It may occur acutely in association with. More often, it is chronic and the cause is unknown.
Symptoms vary depending on which blood vessels are involved. Systemic vasculitis may also be associated with other autoimmune disorders; for example, SLE or dermatomyositis.
Documentation of systemic vasculitis. Angiography or tissue biopsy confirms a diagnosis of systemic vasculitis when the disease is suspected clinically.
When you have had angiography or tissue biopsy for systemic vasculitis, we will make every reasonable effort to obtain reports of the results of that procedure.
However, we will not purchase angiography or tissue biopsy. Systemic sclerosis scleroderma Systemic sclerosis scleroderma constitutes a spectrum of disease in which thickening of the skin is the clinical hallmark.
Raynaud's phenomenon, often medically severe and progressive, is present frequently and may be the peripheral manifestation of a vasospastic abnormality in the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
The CREST syndrome calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia is a variant that may slowly progress over years to the generalized process, systemic sclerosis.
Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. In diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis also known as diffuse scleroderma , major organ or systemic involvement can include the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, heart, kidneys, and muscle in addition to skin or blood vessels.
Localized scleroderma linear scleroderma and morphea. However, this type of scleroderma can persist into adulthood.
To assess the severity of the impairment, we need a description of the extent of involvement of linear scleroderma and the location of the lesions.
For example, linear scleroderma involving the arm but not crossing any joints is not as functionally limiting as sclerodactyly scleroderma localized to the fingers.
Linear scleroderma of a lower extremity involving skin thickening and atrophy of underlying muscle or bone can result in contractures and leg length discrepancy.
In such cases, we may evaluate your impairment under the musculoskeletal listings 1. We evaluate these variants of the disease under the criteria in the musculoskeletal listings 1.
Documentation of systemic sclerosis scleroderma. Documentation involves differentiating the clinical features of systemic sclerosis scleroderma from other autoimmune disorders.
However, there may be an overlap. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are related disorders that are characterized by an inflammatory process in striated muscle, occurring alone or in association with other autoimmune disorders or malignancy.
The most common manifestations are symmetric weakness, and less frequently, pain and tenderness of the proximal limb-girdle shoulder or pelvic musculature.
There may also be involvement of the cervical, cricopharyngeal, esophageal, intercostal, and diaphragmatic muscles.
Documentation of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Generally, but not always, polymyositis is associated with elevated serum muscle enzymes creatine phosphokinase CPK , aminotransferases, and aldolase , and characteristic abnormalities on electromyography and muscle biopsy.
In dermatomyositis there are characteristic skin findings in addition to the findings of polymyositis. When you have had electromyography or muscle biopsy for polymyositis or dermatomyositis, we will make every reasonable effort to obtain reports of the results of that procedure.
However, we will not purchase electromyography or muscle biopsy. Additional information about how we evaluate polymyositis and dermatomyositis under the listings.
Weakness of your shoulder girdle muscles may result in your inability to perform lifting, carrying, and reaching overhead, and also may seriously affect your ability to perform activities requiring fine movements.
We evaluate these limitations under Undifferentiated and mixed connective tissue disease This listing includes syndromes with clinical and immunologic features of several autoimmune disorders, but which do not satisfy the criteria for any of the specific disorders described.
For example, you may have clinical features of SLE and systemic vasculitis, and the serologic blood test findings of rheumatoid arthritis.
Documentation of undifferentiated and mixed connective tissue disease. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease is diagnosed when clinical features and serologic blood test findings, such as rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody consistent with an autoimmune disorder are present but do not satisfy the criteria for a specific disease.
Mixed connective tissue disease MCTD is diagnosed when clinical features and serologic findings of two or more autoimmune diseases overlap.
Inflammatory arthritis The spectrum of inflammatory arthritis includes a vast array of disorders that differ in cause, course, and outcome.
Clinically, inflammation of major peripheral joints may be the dominant manifestation causing difficulties with ambulation or fine and gross movements; there may be joint pain, swelling, and tenderness.
The arthritis may affect other joints, or cause less limitation in ambulation or the performance of fine and gross movements.
However, in combination with extra-articular features, including constitutional symptoms or signs severe fatigue, fever, malaise, involuntary weight loss , inflammatory arthritis may result in an extreme limitation.
Inflammatory arthritis involving the axial spine spondyloarthropathy. In adults, inflammatory arthritis involving the axial spine may be associated with disorders such as:.
Inflammatory arthritis involving the peripheral joints. In adults, inflammatory arthritis involving peripheral joints may be associated with disorders such as:.
Documentation of inflammatory arthritis. Generally, but not always, the diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis is based on the clinical features and serologic findings described in the most recent edition of the Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases published by the Arthritis Foundation.
How we evaluate inflammatory arthritis under the listings. In Therefore, inability to ambulate effectively is implicit in Extra-articular impairments may also meet listings in other body systems.
Sjögren's syndrome Involvement of the lacrimal and salivary glands is the hallmark feature, resulting in symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth, and possible complications, such as corneal damage, blepharitis eyelid inflammation , dysphagia difficulty in swallowing , dental caries, and the inability to speak for extended periods of time.
Involvement of the exocrine glands of the upper airways may result in persistent dry cough. Severe fatigue and malaise are frequently reported.
Sjögren's syndrome may be associated with other autoimmune disorders for example, rheumatoid arthritis or SLE ; usually the clinical features of the associated disorder predominate.
Documentation of Sjögren's syndrome. If you have Sjögren's syndrome, the medical evidence will generally, but not always, show that your disease satisfies the criteria in the current "Criteria for the Classification of Sjögren's Syndrome" by the American College of Rheumatology found in the most recent edition of the Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases published by the Arthritis Foundation.
Primary immune deficiency disorders are seen mainly in children. However, recent advances in the treatment of these disorders have allowed many affected children to survive well into adulthood.
Occasionally, these disorders are first diagnosed in adolescence or adulthood. Documentation of immune deficiency disorders.
The medical evidence must include documentation of the specific type of immune deficiency. Documentation may be by laboratory evidence or by other generally acceptable methods consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice.
Immune deficiency disorders treated by stem cell transplantation. Evaluation in the first 12 months. If you undergo stem cell transplantation for your immune deficiency disorder, we will consider you disabled until at least 12 months from the date of the transplant.
Evaluation after the month period has elapsed. After the month period has elapsed, we will consider any residuals of your immune deficiency disorder as well as any residual impairment s resulting from the treatment, such as complications arising from:.
Medication-induced immune suppression. Medication effects can result in varying degrees of immune suppression, but most resolve when the medication is ceased.
However, if you are prescribed medication for long-term immune suppression, such as after an organ transplant, we will evaluate:.
Residuals from the organ transplant itself, after the month period has elapsed. Any individual with HIV infection, including one with a diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS , may be found disabled under Definitive documentation of HIV infection.
We may document a diagnosis of HIV infection by positive findings on one or more of the following definitive laboratory tests:.
We will make every reasonable effort to obtain the results of your laboratory testing. Other acceptable documentation of HIV infection.
We may also document HIV infection without definitive laboratory evidence. To be persuasive, this report must state that you had the appropriate definitive laboratory test s for diagnosing your HIV infection and provide the results.
The report must also be consistent with the remaining evidence of record. For example, we will accept a diagnosis of HIV infection without definitive laboratory evidence of the HIV infection if you have an opportunistic disease that is predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity for example, toxoplasmosis of the brain or Pneumocystis pneumonia PCP , and there is no other known cause of diminished resistance to that disease for example, long-term steroid treatment or lymphoma.
In such cases, we will make every reasonable effort to obtain full details of the history, medical findings, and results of testing.
Documentation of the manifestations of HIV infection. Definitive documentation of manifestations of HIV infection.
We may document manifestations of HIV infection by positive findings on definitive laboratory tests, such as culture, microscopic examination of biopsied tissue or other material for example, bronchial washings , serologic tests, or on other generally acceptable definitive tests consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice.
Other acceptable documentation of manifestations of HIV infection. We may also document manifestations of HIV infection without definitive laboratory evidence.
To be persuasive, this report must state that you had the appropriate definitive laboratory test s for diagnosing your manifestation of HIV infection and provide the results.
For example, many conditions are now commonly diagnosed based on some or all of the following: Medical history, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings including appropriate medically acceptable imaging , and treatment responses.
Disorders associated with HIV infection Multicentric Castleman disease MCD, This widespread involvement distinguishes MCD from localized or unicentric Castleman disease, which affects only a single set of lymph nodes.
While not a cancer, MCD is known as a lymphoproliferative disorder. Its clinical presentation and progression is similar to that of lymphoma, and its treatment may include radiation or chemotherapy.
We require characteristic findings on microscopic examination of the biopsied lymph nodes or other generally acceptable methods consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice to establish the diagnosis.
Localized or unicentric Castleman disease does not meet or medically equal the criterion in Imaging tests for example, MRI of the brain, while not diagnostic, may show a single lesion or multiple lesions in the white matter of the brain.
We require characteristic findings on microscopic examination of the cerebral spinal fluid or of the biopsied brain tissue, or other generally acceptable methods consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice to establish the diagnosis.
Primary effusion lymphoma PEL, We require characteristic findings on microscopic examination of the effusion fluid or of the biopsied tissue from the affected internal organ, or other generally acceptable methods consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice to establish the diagnosis.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy PML, Clinical findings of PML include clumsiness, progressive weakness, and visual and speech changes.
Personality and cognitive changes may also occur. We require appropriate clinical findings, characteristic white matter lesions on MRI, and a positive PCR test for the JC virus in the cerebrospinal fluid to establish the diagnosis.
We also accept a positive brain biopsy for JC virus or other generally acceptable methods consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice to establish the diagnosis.
Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma in the lung, Other internal KS tumors for example, tumors of the gastrointestinal tract have a more variable prognosis.
We require characteristic findings on microscopic examination of the induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage washings, or of the biopsied transbronchial tissue, or by other generally acceptable methods consistent with the prevailing state of medical knowledge and clinical practice to establish the diagnosis.
CD4 measurement To evaluate your HIV infection under This measurement must occur within the period we are considering in connection with your application or continuing disability review.
If you have more than one measurement of your absolute CD4 count within this period, we will use your lowest absolute CD4 count.
Measurement of CD4 and either body mass index or hemoglobin These measurements must occur within the period we are considering in connection with your application or continuing disability review.
If you have more than one measurement of your CD4 absolute count or percentage , BMI, or hemoglobin within this period, we will use the lowest of your CD4 absolute count or percentage , BMI, or hemoglobin.
The date of your lowest CD4 absolute count or percentage measurement may be different from the date of your lowest BMI or hemoglobin measurement.
We calculate your BMI using the formulas in 5. Complications of HIV infection requiring hospitalization Complications of HIV infection may include infections common or opportunistic , cancers, and other conditions.
Examples of complications that may result in hospitalization include: Depression; diarrhea; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; malnutrition; and PCP and other severe infections.
Under The hospitalizations may be for the same complication or different complications of HIV infection and are not limited to the examples of complications that may result in hospitalization listed in All three hospitalizations must occur within the period we are considering in connection with your application or continuing disability review.
Each hospitalization must last at least 48 hours, including hours in a hospital emergency department immediately before the hospitalization.
HIV infection manifestations specific to women. Most women with severe immunosuppression secondary to HIV infection exhibit the typical opportunistic infections and other conditions, such as PCP, Candida esophagitis, wasting syndrome, cryptococcosis, and toxoplasmosis.
However, HIV infection may have different manifestations in women than in men. Adjudicators must carefully scrutinize the medical evidence and be alert to the variety of medical conditions specific to, or common in, women with HIV infection that may affect their ability to function in the workplace.
Additional considerations for evaluating HIV infection in women. Many of these manifestations for example, vulvovaginal candidiasis or pelvic inflammatory disease occur in women with or without HIV infection, but can be more severe or resistant to treatment, or occur more frequently in a woman whose immune system is suppressed.
Therefore, when evaluating the claim of a woman with HIV infection, it is important to consider gynecologic and other problems specific to women, including any associated symptoms for example, pelvic pain , in assessing the severity of the impairment and resulting functional limitations.
We may evaluate manifestations of HIV infection in women under HAD is an advanced neurocognitive disorder, characterized by a significant decline in cognitive functioning.
We evaluate HAD under If your impairment does not otherwise meet the requirements of a listing, we will consider your medical treatment in terms of its effectiveness in improving the signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities of your specific immune system disorder or its manifestations, and in terms of any side effects that limit your functioning.
We will make every reasonable effort to obtain a specific description of the treatment you receive including surgery for your immune system disorder.
We consider:. The intrusiveness and complexity of your treatment for example, the dosing schedule, need for injections. The effect of treatment on your mental functioning for example, cognitive changes, mood disturbance.
Variability of your response to treatment see The interactive and cumulative effects of your treatments.
For example, many individuals with immune system disorders receive treatment both for their immune system disorders and for the manifestations of the disorders or co-occurring impairments, such as treatment for HIV infection and hepatitis C.
The interactive and cumulative effects of these treatments may be greater than the effects of each treatment considered separately.
Any other aspects of treatment that may interfere with your ability to function. Variability of your response to treatment. Your response to treatment and the adverse or beneficial consequences of your treatment may vary widely.
The effects of your treatment may be temporary or long term. For example, some individuals may show an initial positive response to a drug or combination of drugs followed by a decrease in effectiveness.
When we evaluate your response to treatment and how your treatment may affect you, we consider such factors as disease activity before treatment, requirements for changes in therapeutic regimens, the time required for therapeutic effectiveness of a particular drug or drugs, the limited number of drug combinations that may be available for your impairment s , and the time-limited efficacy of some drugs.
For example, an individual with HIV infection or another immune deficiency disorder who develops pneumonia or tuberculosis may not respond to the same antibiotic regimen used in treating individuals without HIV infection or another immune deficiency disorder, or may not respond to an antibiotic that he or she responded to before.
Therefore, we must consider the effects of your treatment on an individual basis, including the effects of your treatment on your ability to function.
How we evaluate the effects of treatment for autoimmune disorders on your ability to function. Some medications may have acute or long-term side effects.
When we consider the effects of corticosteroids or other treatments for autoimmune disorders on your ability to function, we consider the factors in Long-term corticosteroid treatment can cause ischemic necrosis of bone, posterior subcapsular cataract, weight gain, glucose intolerance, increased susceptibility to infection, and osteoporosis that may result in a loss of function.
In addition, medications used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders may also have effects on mental functioning, including cognition for example, memory , concentration, and mood.
How we evaluate the effects of treatment for immune deficiency disorders, excluding HIV infection, on your ability to function.
When we consider the effects of your treatment for your immune deficiency disorder on your ability to function, we consider the factors in A frequent need for treatment such as intravenous immunoglobulin and gamma interferon therapy can be intrusive and interfere with your ability to work.
We will also consider whether you have chronic side effects from these or other medications, including severe fatigue, fever, headaches, high blood pressure, joint swelling, muscle aches, nausea, shortness of breath, or limitations in mental function including cognition for example, memory , concentration, and mood.
After separating, Mary uses the time to praise Sam on his leadership and they discuss her possible relationship with Bobby, but their conversation comes to an abrupt end when they discover the remains of a burnt wallet full of fake identification cards that seems to belong to a hunter.
Meanwhile, Dean and Bobby find an old shed. As Dean enters the shed, Bobby is distracted by a man walking in the woods and goes to investigate.
Acting on instinct, Dean stabs the ghoul as it rushes him, only for it to explode into a cloud of thick dust.
When Dean returns to the house to explain to Sam what he has found, he discovers Mary and Sam explaining that monsters are real to Sasha and Neil.
They all agree that the vampire's behavior was strange and that it seemed less intent on killing her than on stopping her reaching the source of the noise in the attic.
Outside, Bobby is attacked by something in the form of his son Daniel , with burned out eyes. As Daniel pins Bobby to a tree with an angel blade and tells him how the angels killed him slowly by crucifying him piece by piece, he is interrupted from delivering a killing blow by Mary, who shoots at Daniel to no effect.
Daniel overpowers Mary and begins choking her on the ground until Bobby manages to pull the angel blade from his shoulder, freeing himself, and stabs his son with it.
Daniel, like the ghoul, explodes into thick grey dust. In the house, Sam is cautiously heading towards the attic, determined to see what the vampire was hiding.
The vampire attacks and, like Dean, Sam stabs the creature and it, too, explodes into dust. Downstairs, Dean finally recognizes the way Patrick is attached to blood bags from when he was held captive by a djinn and realizes that Neil is the one behind everything.
He sends Sasha to make him a sandwich, insinuating to her to just leave the room to keep her safe, which Sasha realizes and does.
When Dean pulls his gun on Neil and tells him he knows he is a djinn. As Neil slowly approaches Dean, ignoring his warnings, Dean shoots him in the knee, which causes Neil to instantly jump on Dean.
Neil tells Dean he wouldn't hurt Michael's favorite "monkey suit", but is curious to know what Dean's nightmares are and tries to use his power on Dean.
However, Neil recoils in horror at what he sees in Dean's mind, allowing Dean to retaliate by bashing Neil's head with a bookend.
On the ground and bloody, Neil taunts Dean with the knowledge that there are dozens of hunter traps set up everywhere by Michael and that Dean and his family are as good as dead.
Dean viciously bashes Neil to death, unloading his gun into Neil's corpse for good measure. After removing the needles from Rawling, Dean assures Sasha that he will be fine and will come to soon.
As they say their goodbyes, Bobby takes the chance to apologize to Sam and praise his leadership. Bobby: Yeah. Your brother. He let Maggie come here when she had no idea what she was walking into.
She wasn't ready. Dean: Oh, c'mon, when is anybody ever ready? Sam: Have you asked? Mary: Bobby's not open like your dad.
Sam: Wait. Like my Dad? Mary: They never had any children? Sam: No. Anyway, point is, people put up walls for a reason.
So, whatever your Bobby has behind his Mary: But you think I should try and find out? Dean: What bargain?
Neil: Find somewhere quiet, set up shop, kill as many hunters as I can. Dean: And in return, he'd give you an upgrade. Neil: It's what he does.
Djinn -- What powers do we really have? Trapping our little flies, weaving our poisonous webs inside people's minds.
It's all so Now, one touch -- I read minds, see nightmares. And because of him, because of you, I can bring those nightmares into the world -- make them do whatever I want.
Dean: The old man? Mary: It wasn't your fault. Bobby: I'm the one that brought him to war. I'm the one who sent him to die. I don't even know what they did to him.
The angels took them. We never found the bodies. I never figured I'd be any kind of a father to a child. But Daniel was the best thing in my life.
I always assumed that war'd kill me, too, but it didn't. I guess lately, I've been looking for other options. Mary: The hunting. Bobby: It ends the same.
Mary: No. You are not allowed to give up on me. Bobby: I don't know any other way to live. Dean: I know, I know. Not my fault. It's Michael.
It's all Michael. You know, I've been trying to -- not forget, but to move on from what I -- from what we -- from what he did.
And I got to be honest, I was starting to feel like myself again. Sam: So we'll work harder. Dean: How, Sam? You get three hours of sleep a night.
Sam: All right, then I'll sleep two. Dean, we're going to find Michael, and when we do, we will kill him. Dean: How? Sam: I don't know.
We'll -- We'll -- We'll track down Dark Kaia and her spear. We'll -- We'll find something. Dean: He's doing his best.
He's doing better than his best. You know, this whole Hunter Five-O thing -- he's -- he's killing himself over it. He doesn't eat, he doesn't sleep, grew himself one of those Kenny Rogers beards.
No offense. Sasha: Well, my father's dying, and there's a strange man sharpening a.. Thank God for benzos.
I never should have come back here. Thanks, Dad. Jump to: navigation , search. Dean: Something on your mind, Bobby?
Bobby: You are or you ain't. A real leader would've seen that a mile away. Mary: Sam. Watching you these last few weeks, you know what I've been saying to myself?
Mary: We're hunting all the time. He won't take a break, not even for a second. There's something on his mind, and he doesn't want to talk about it.
Except for existing permits for model aircraft described in paragraph 1 a below see Conditions and Exceptions , suspend all special use permits issued for the operation of unmanned aircraft until they have been reviewed and approved in writing by the Associate Director, Visitor and Resource Protection ADVRP.
Not issue any new special use permits for the use of unmanned aircraft unless they have been approved by the ADVRP under paragraph 1 d below see Conditions and Exceptions.
Not authorize any business operations using unmanned aircraft under 36 CFR 5. Conditions and Exceptions. The required compendium closures do not apply to the following activities:.
Continued activities under these existing authorities are allowed, but renewals and modifications of these compendium provisions or permits must be approved in writing by the ADVRP.
Superintendents of these parks should note in their compendiums that the required closures do not apply to these established uses.
Administrative use includes the use of unmanned aircraft by i NPS personnel as operators or crew; ii cooperators such as government agencies and universities that conduct unmanned aircraft operations for the NPS pursuant to a written agreement; and iii other entities, including commercial entities, conducting unmanned aircraft operations for the NPS, provided such entities are in compliance with all applicable FAA and Department of the Interior requirements.
A separate guidance package will be provided for parks requesting approval for administrative use of unmanned aircraft.
Superintendents should refer to Exhibit B if they intend to seek approval for a special use permit under this exception. The compendium closures required by this Policy Memorandum do not apply to launching, landing, or operating unmanned aircraft from or on non-federally owned lands located within the exterior boundaries of units of the National Park System.
However, in accordance with 36 CFR 1. Nothing in this Policy Memorandum will be construed as modifying any requirement imposed by the FAA on the use or operation of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System.
The NPS will continue to coordinate with the FAA on national or other appropriate levels regarding the use of unmanned aircraft on lands and waters administered by the NPS.
This Policy Memorandum will remain in effect until superseded or rescinded by the Director. Questions about this Policy Memorandum may also be directed to the Associate Director, Visitor and Resource Protection at Points of contact for specific issues related to this Policy Memorandum, such as media and external communications, are identified in the attached exhibits that provide additional information.
Exhibit A. List of 36 CFR Regulations. Under certain circumstances, however, the following existing 36 CFR regulations may also apply.
These existing authorities should be used carefully to ensure that all elements of the cited offense are present. Exhibit B. One of those exceptions, listed in paragraph 1 d of the Policy Memorandum see Conditions and Exceptions , allows for activities under a special use permit SUP that specifically authorizes launching, landing, or operating an unmanned aircraft and that is approved in writing by the Associate Director, Visitor and Resource Protection ADVRP.
This guidance document is designed to help superintendents:. Launching, landing, or operating unmanned aircraft may or may not be compatible within a park.
If presented with a request to launch, land, or operate an unmanned aircraft on lands or waters administered by the NPS, superintendents must use their professional judgment to adequately evaluate the appropriateness of the requested activities and determine whether they will result in unacceptable impacts to park resources and values.
Superintendents should consider the following criteria when making this determination prior to submitting a request to the ADVRP for approval:.
Will the activity:. If the superintendent determines the requested activity is appropriate and compatible with the values and resources of the park, he or she may seek the approval of the ADVRP to issue an SUP that authorizes launching, landing, or operating unmanned aircraft in the park.
Requests for approval should be submitted through the regional director to the ADVRP and contain the following materials:.
SUPs that permit launching, landing, or operating unmanned aircraft from or on lands or waters administered by the NPS should clearly identify the designated area s for these activities within the park.
SUPs should also contain appropriate terms and conditions to ensure safe operation of unmanned aircraft and mitigate any unacceptable impacts to the resources and values of the park.
In addition to the standard SUP conditions included on all permits, the following conditions are required:.
Optional conditions to consider select as appropriate; may be revised based upon individual park needs :. Only persons associated with flying the unmanned aircraft are allowed at or in front of the safety line that separates the area of flight operations from non-flight areas.
Intentional flying behind the safety line is prohibited. If the superintendent decides to allow flammable fuels, however, the following requirements should apply:.
Unlike the NPS, which does not distinguish between types of unmanned aircraft, the FAA makes a distinction between model aircraft used by hobbyists for recreation and unmanned aircraft operated commercially.
FAA guidance for model aircraft operation is found in Advisory Circular This guidance may be useful when developing permit terms and conditions for unmanned aircraft that qualify as model aircraft as that term is used in Advisory Circular and section of the FAA Reauthorization Act of Depending on the type of unmanned aircraft, this may include a COA that authorizes flying outside of restricted airspace or an experimental certificate granted by the FAA for specific types of missions e.
To date, it is extremely rare for unmanned aircraft to be flown under an experimental certificate for compensation or hire.
Thus, for the NPS to permit launching, landing, or operating commercial unmanned aircraft within a park, the operator must have FAA approval and provide that documentation in the form of a COA prior to issuance of an SUP.
Exhibit C. The Frequently Asked Questions do not supersede or replace any provision of the Policy Memorandum, which is the controlling document that provides direction to the field.
This definition is controlling for purposes of the Policy Memorandum notwithstanding any other definition of unmanned aircraft system or model aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration FAA or any other government agency or private entity.
What are superintendents required to do under the Policy Memorandum? Superintendents must use their authority under 36 CFR 1.
The Policy Memorandum contains specific closure language that must be inserted into the compendium of each park. The Policy Memorandum contains a list of required actions that must be taken to implement this compendium closure.
These include providing adequate notice to the public, preparing a written determination explaining the closure, and complying with applicable laws such as the National Environmental Policy Act and the Wilderness Act.
What is a compendium? The compendium must be made available to the public and is typically posted on the park website.
Exhibit B to this Policy Memorandum lists other regulations in 36 CFR that may apply to the use of unmanned aircraft under certain circumstances; however, none of these regulations directly address the use of unmanned aircraft.
When must superintendents complete the actions required by the Policy Memorandum? Actions needed to implement the compendium closure must be taken no later than August 20, Other actions must be taken upon receipt of the Policy Memorandum.
Are there any exceptions to the required closure of all parks to the use of unmanned aircraft? Superintendents who have authorized, prior to the date of the Policy Memorandum, the use of model aircraft for hobbyist or recreational use , either in the park compendium or through special use permits, may allow continued activities under those existing authorities.
Administrative use of unmanned aircraft as approved in writing by the ADVRP for such purposes as scientific study, search and rescue operations, fire operations, and law enforcement may be conducted.
Activities conducted under a Scientific Research and Collecting Permit that authorizes launching, landing, or operating an unmanned aircraft may be conducted after approval by the ADVRP in consultation with the Associate Director for Natural Resource Stewardship and Science.
Superintendents may request that the ADVRP approve a special use permit that authorizes launching, landing, or operating an unmanned aircraft after taking steps at the park level to determine and analyze the impacts of the activity.
The procedures for making these requests are contained in Exhibit B to the Policy Memorandum. Why has the approval level for administrative uses of unmanned aircraft been set at the WASO level?
Just as the impacts of unmanned aircraft use by the public have not been evaluated, the NPS has not evaluated what types of impacts could be caused by administrative uses of these devices.
Additionally, the NPS does not currently have a policy framework in place to govern use by NPS employees operating, purchasing, etc.
Moving forward, the NPS will be evaluating the potential mission types e. Superintendents should understand that there are already stringent DOI and FAA policies relating to federal purchase and use of unmanned aircraft.
Nothing in the Policy Memorandum will be construed as modifying any requirement imposed by the FAA on the use or operation of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System.
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This course uses the tools of macroeconomics to study various macroeconomic policy problems in-depth.
The problems range from economic growth in the long run, to government finances in the intermediate run, and economic stability in the short run.
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