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human heart

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The heart is located in the thoracic cavity medial to the lungs and posterior to the sternum.

The heart sits within a fluid-filled cavity called the pericardial cavity. The walls and lining of the pericardial cavity are a special membrane known as the pericardium.

Pericardium is a type of serous membrane that produces serous fluid to lubricate the heart and prevent friction between the ever beating heart and its surrounding organs.

Besides lubrication, the pericardium serves to hold the heart in position and maintain a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full.

The pericardium has 2 layers—a visceral layer that covers the outside of the heart and a parietal layer that forms a sac around the outside of the pericardial cavity.

The thickness of the heart wall varies in different parts of the heart. The atria of the heart have a very thin myocardium because they do not need to pump blood very far—only to the nearby ventricles.

The ventricles, on the other hand, have a very thick myocardium to pump blood to the lungs or throughout the entire body. The right side of the heart has less myocardium in its walls than the left side because the left side has to pump blood through the entire body while the right side only has to pump to the lungs.

The heart contains 4 chambers: the right atrium , left atrium , right ventricle , and left ventricle.

The atria are smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles. The atria act as receiving chambers for blood, so they are connected to the veins that carry blood to the heart.

The ventricles are the larger, stronger pumping chambers that send blood out of the heart. The ventricles are connected to the arteries that carry blood away from the heart.

The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller and have less myocardium in their heart wall when compared to the left side of the heart.

This difference in size between the sides of the heart is related to their functions and the size of the 2 circulatory loops.

The right side of the heart maintains pulmonary circulation to the nearby lungs while the left side of the heart pumps blood all the way to the extremities of the body in the systemic circulatory loop.

The heart functions by pumping blood both to the lungs and to the systems of the body. The heart valves can be broken down into two types: atrioventricular and semilunar valves.

The heart is able to both set its own rhythm and to conduct the signals necessary to maintain and coordinate this rhythm throughout its structures.

The conduction system starts with the pacemaker of the heart—a small bundle of cells known as the sinoatrial SA node. A heart attack can lead to cardiac arrest, but the latter can also be caused by other problems, he said.

The heart contains electrical "pacemaker" cells, which cause it to contract — producing a heartbeat.

In people with an irregular heartbeat, or atrial fibrillation, every cell tries to be the band leader, he said, which causes them to beat out of sync with one another.

A healthy heart contraction happens in five stages. In the first stage early diastole , the heart is relaxed. Then the atrium contracts atrial systole to push blood into the ventricle.

Next, the ventricles start contracting without changing volume. Then the ventricles continue contracting while empty.

Finally, the ventricles stop contracting and relax. Then the cycle repeats. Therefore, snakes that are larger in size tend to have a higher blood pressure due to gravitational change.

This results in the heart being located in different regions of the body that is relative to the snake's body length.

In most reptilian species, there appears to be little, if any, mixing between the bloodstreams, so the aorta receives, essentially, only oxygenated blood.

In the heart of lungfish , the septum extends part-way into the ventricle. This allows for some degree of separation between the de-oxygenated bloodstream destined for the lungs and the oxygenated stream that is delivered to the rest of the body.

The absence of such a division in living amphibian species may be partly due to the amount of respiration that occurs through the skin; thus, the blood returned to the heart through the venae cavae is already partially oxygenated.

As a result, there may be less need for a finer division between the two bloodstreams than in lungfish or other tetrapods. Nonetheless, in at least some species of amphibian, the spongy nature of the ventricle does seem to maintain more of a separation between the bloodstreams.

Also, the original valves of the conus arteriosus have been replaced by a spiral valve that divides it into two parallel parts, thereby helping to keep the two bloodstreams separate.

Archosaurs crocodilians and birds and mammals show complete separation of the heart into two pumps for a total of four heart chambers ; it is thought that the four-chambered heart of archosaurs evolved independently from that of mammals.

In crocodilians, there is a small opening, the foramen of Panizza , at the base of the arterial trunks and there is some degree of mixing between the blood in each side of the heart, during a dive underwater; [] [] thus, only in birds and mammals are the two streams of blood—those to the pulmonary and systemic circulations—permanently kept entirely separate by a physical barrier.

Fish have what is often described as a two-chambered heart, [] consisting of one atrium to receive blood and one ventricle to pump it.

The atrium and ventricle are sometimes considered "true chambers", while the others are considered "accessory chambers".

Primitive fish have a four-chambered heart, but the chambers are arranged sequentially so that this primitive heart is quite unlike the four-chambered hearts of mammals and birds.

The first chamber is the sinus venosus , which collects deoxygenated blood from the body through the hepatic and cardinal veins. From here, blood flows into the atrium and then to the powerful muscular ventricle where the main pumping action will take place.

The fourth and final chamber is the conus arteriosus , which contains several valves and sends blood to the ventral aorta.

The ventral aorta delivers blood to the gills where it is oxygenated and flows, through the dorsal aorta , into the rest of the body.

In tetrapods , the ventral aorta has divided in two; one half forms the ascending aorta , while the other forms the pulmonary artery.

In the adult fish, the four chambers are not arranged in a straight row but instead form an S-shape, with the latter two chambers lying above the former two.

This relatively simple pattern is found in cartilaginous fish and in the ray-finned fish. In teleosts , the conus arteriosus is very small and can more accurately be described as part of the aorta rather than of the heart proper.

The conus arteriosus is not present in any amniotes , presumably having been absorbed into the ventricles over the course of evolution.

Similarly, while the sinus venosus is present as a vestigial structure in some reptiles and birds, it is otherwise absorbed into the right atrium and is no longer distinguishable.

Arthropods and most mollusks have an open circulatory system. In this system, deoxygenated blood collects around the heart in cavities sinuses.

This blood slowly permeates the heart through many small one-way channels. The heart then pumps the blood into the hemocoel , a cavity between the organs.

The heart in arthropods is typically a muscular tube that runs the length of the body, under the back and from the base of the head.

Instead of blood the circulatory fluid is haemolymph which carries the most commonly used respiratory pigment , copper-based haemocyanin as the oxygen transporter.

Haemoglobin is only used by a few arthropods. In some other invertebrates such as earthworms , the circulatory system is not used to transport oxygen and so is much reduced, having no veins or arteries and consisting of two connected tubes.

Oxygen travels by diffusion and there are five small muscular vessels that connect these vessels that contract at the front of the animals that can be thought of as "hearts".

Squids and other cephalopods have two "gill hearts" also known as branchial hearts , and one "systemic heart".

The branchial hearts have two atria and one ventricle each, and pump to the gills , whereas the systemic heart pumps to the body.

OpenStax CNX. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Human heart. This article is about the internal organ.

For other uses, see Heart disambiguation. For the comics character, see Cardiac comics. Muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system in most animals.

Healthy resting heart sounds. Auscultation of a healthy 15 year old's heart beating with no abnormalities. Play media. Main article: Heart valves.

With the atria and major vessels removed, all four valves are clearly visible. The heart, showing valves, arteries and veins.

The white arrows show the normal direction of blood flow. Further information: Cardiac muscle. Main article: Coronary circulation. Main articles: Heart development and Human embryogenesis.

Main article: Cardiac physiology. Main articles: Cardiac cycle , Systole , and Diastole. Main article: Cardiac output.

Main articles: Electrical conduction system of the heart and Heart rate. Main article: Heart rate. Auscultation of student's racing heart after exercise.

Recorded heart sounds of a year-old girl immediately after running, and the following recovery of heart rate. The stethoscope is used for auscultation of the heart, and is one of the most iconic symbols for medicine.

A number of diseases can be detected primarily by listening for heart murmurs. Atherosclerosis is a condition affecting the circulatory system.

If the coronary arteries are affected, angina pectoris may result or at worse a heart attack. Main article: Coronary artery disease.

Main article: heart failure. Main article: Cardiomyopathy. Main article: Valvular heart disease.

Main article: Heart arrhythmia. An irregular heartbeat. Recording of heart sounds from a year-old girl with a cardiac arrhythmia. Main article: Congenital heart defect.

Main articles: Cardiac examination and Heart sounds. Normal heart sounds. Normal heart sounds as heard with a stethoscope.

Main article: Electrocardiography. Main article: Cardiac imaging. Main articles: Coronary artery disease , Coronary artery bypass surgery , and Coronary stent.

Main article: Artificial heart valve. Main articles: Heart arrhythmia , Radiofrequency ablation , and Artificial cardiac pacemaker.

Main article: Heart failure. Common heart symbol. The seal script glyph for "heart" Middle Chinese sim.

See also: Circulatory system. Blood flow through the fish heart: sinus venosus, atrium, ventricle, and outflow tract.

The coronary circulation. The pressure difference between the blood in the atria and the ventricles does this.

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